注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

新东方官方BLOG

追求卓越,挑战极限,从绝望中寻找希望,人生终将辉煌!

 
 
 

日志

 
 

新东方名师:2011年考研英语真题解析  

2011-01-17 10:56:49|  分类: 【新东方课堂】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

[来源:新东方  作者:周雷 唐静 王江涛  李玉技 舒洋]

 

  2011年考研英语的考试已经结束,就拿到的真题分析,整体难度与2010年相比有所下降,但是各部分的题目难度增减不一。完型填空部分,难度基本上没有变化,但是对词汇的考察有所加强,阅读理解Part A部分不论是从文章的选取和题目的设计,比去年的难度都有一定程度的降低。阅读理解的PART B部分,第一次出现了排序题,虽然排序在几种题型中算是难度比较低的,但是命题者通过文章的选择,避免了一些明显的标志词的出现,成功地增加了难度,但是整体而言,此部分难度比去年有所降低。这次考试,难度降低比较明显的是作文部分。2010年的“文化火锅”确实使不少同学在构思和用词上煞费苦心,而今年关于旅游区爱护环境的话题,其文章审题的难度,仅限于高一语文作文的水平,加之环保是考研英语作文的大热点,相信很多同学在考前也有目的地记忆了一些这方面的词汇和句型,写起来一定是更加得心应手。

  一、翻译部分解析

  以下为考试原文和译文,仅供参考;时间仓促,不对之处,敬请指出并谅解。祝福各位考研的朋友。

  With its theme that “Mind is the master weaver,” creating our inner character and outer circumstances, the book As a Man Thinking by James Allen is an in-depth exploration of the central idea of self-help writing。

  (46) Allen’s contribution was to take an assumption we all share--that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts-and reveal its erroneous nature. 我们每个人都认为:自己不是机器人,因此能够控制自己的思想;爱伦的贡献在于他研究了这一假说,并揭示其错误的本质。Because most of us believe that mind is separate from matter, we think that thoughts can be hidden and made powerless; this allows us to think one way and act another. However, Allen believed that the unconscious mind generates as much action as the conscious mind, and (47) while we may be able to sustain the illusion of control through the conscious mind alone, in reality we are continually faced with a question: “Why cannot I make myself do this or achieve that? ”我们或许只通过意识就能维持这种控制的幻觉,但事实上,我们却总是面临一个问题:我们为什么不能让自己去做这件事情,实现那个目标呢?

  Since desire and will are damaged by the presence of thoughts that do not accord with desire, Allen concluded : “ We do not attract what we want, but what we are。” Achievement happens because you as a person embody the external achievement; you don’t “ get” success but become it. There is no gap between mind and matter。

  Part of the fame of Allen’s book is its contention that “Circumstances do not make a person, they reveal him。” (48) This seems a justification for neglect of those in need, and a rationalization of exploitation, of the superiority of those at the top and the inferiority of those at the bottom。 这种说法似乎为忽视需要帮助的人找到了借口,使剥削合理化,令上层人优越,底层人卑微。

  This, however, would be a knee-jerk reaction to a subtle argument. Each set of circumstances, however bad, offers a unique opportunity for growth. If circumstances always determined the life and prospects of people, then humanity would never have progressed. In fat, (49)circumstances seem to be designed to bring out the best in us and if we feel that we have been “wronged” then we are unlikely to begin a conscious effort to escape from our situation. 环境似乎旨在激发我们的最大潜能,如果我们总感觉“上天不公”,那么不太可能会自觉地努力脱离现状。Nevertheless, as any biographer knows, a person’s early life and its conditions are often the greatest gift to an individual。

  The sobering aspect of Allen’s book is that we have no one else to blame for our present condition except ourselves. (50) The upside is the possibilities contained in knowing that everything is up to us; where before we were experts in the array of limitations, now we become authorities of what is possible。积极的一面是,既然万事都取决于我们,那么就有无限可能。以前,我们能够熟练应对种种局限;现在,我们把握着未来的可能。

  说明:英语二翻译试题和去年难度一致。不出所料,考了环境话题。今年的试题来源于New Statesmen,经出题老师改编过。这篇文章的原作者是Jason Stamper,原题目是The green IT myth。

  二、完型填空部分解析

  题目的文章来自于 2009年4月号Scientific American, 作者 Steve Ayan, 原文题目为How Humor Makes You Friendlier, Sexier(幽默如何使你更加有人缘且性感)。

  Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as “a bodily exercise precious to health。” But 1 despite some claims to the contrary, chuckling probably has little influence on physical fitness. Laughter does 2 produce short-term changes in cardiovascular function and respiration, 3 boosting heart rate, respiratory rate and depth, as well as oxygen consumption. But because hard laughter is difficult to 4 sustain, a good guffaw is unlikely to have 5 measurable cardiovascular benefits the way, say, walking or jogging does。
  6 , instead of straining muscles to build them, as exercise does, laughter apparently accomplishes the 7 opposite. Studies dating back to the 1930s indicate that laughter 8 relaxes muscles, decreasing muscle tone for up to 45 minutes after the guffaw subsides。
  Such physical relaxation might conceivably help 9 moderate the effects of psychological stress. After all, the act of laughing probably does produce other types of 10 physical feedback that improve an individual’s emotional state. 11 according to one classical theory of emotion, our feelings are partially rooted 12 in physical reactions. American psychologist William James and Danish physiologist Carl Lange argued at the end of the 19th century that humans do not cry 13 because they are sad but that they become sad when the tears begin to flow。
  Although sadness also 14 precedes tears, evidence suggests that emotions can flow 15 from muscular responses. In an experiment published in 1988, social psychologist Fritz Strack of the University of Würzburg in Germany and his colleagues asked volunteers to 16 hold a pen either with their teeth—thereby creating an artificial smile—or with their lips, which would produce a 17 disappointed expression. Those forced to exercise their smiling muscles 18 reacted more exuberantly to funny cartoons than did those whose mouths were contracted in a frown, 19 suggesting that expressions may influence emotions rather than just the other way around. 20 similarly, the physical act of laughter could improve mood。

  1.[A]among [B]except [C]despite [D]like C

  2.[A]reflect [B]demand [C]indicate [D]produce D

  3.[A]stabilizing [B]boosting [C]impairing [D]determining B

  4.[A]transmit [B]sustain [C]evaluate [D]observe B

  5.[A]measurable [B]manageable [C]affordable [D]renewable A

  6.[A]In turn [B]In fact [C]In addition [D]In brief B

  7.[A]opposite [B]impossible [C]average [D]expected A

  8.[A]hardens [B]weakens [C]tightens [D]relaxes D

  9.[A]aggravate [B]generate [C]moderate [D]enhance C

  10.[A]physical [B]mental [C]subconscious [D]internal A

  11.[A]Except for [B]According to [C]Due to [D]As for B

  12.[A]with [B]on [C]in [D]at C

  13.[A]unless [B]until [C]if [D]because D

  14.[A]exhausts [B]follows [C]precedes [D]suppresses  C

  15.[A]into [B]from [C]towards [D]beyond B

  16.[A]fetch [B]bite [C]pick [D]hold D

  17.[A]disappointed [B]excited [C]joyful [D]indifferent A

  18.[A]adapted [B]catered [C]turned [D]reacted D

  19.[A]suggesting [B]requiring [C]mentioning [D]supposing A

  20.[A]Eventually [B]Consequently [C]Similarly [D]Conversely C

  三、阅读理解部分解析

  阅读理解 Part A

  Text 1

  文章选自不是很热门的一本杂志Commentary2007年9月号,原文作者TERRY TEACHOUT,题目为 Selling Classical Music。作者从纽约爱乐乐团任命Alan Gilbert为新音乐总监一事谈起,分析了交响乐团现在面临的困境,并给出了自己的解释和解决途径。文章难度一般,后面题目也比较简单。

  Text 2

  文章选自Business Week《商业周刊》2009年11月5日刊,原文作者Jena McGregor,原文的题目是Top Managers Are Quitting, Without a New Job(顶级经理人在离职,新工作还没着落)。讲在西方经济逐渐摆脱金融危机影响后,工作机会也渐渐多了起来,许多高级经理人不等和下家谈好,就先辞职,即现在所谓的“裸辞”或“裸跳”。作者分析了这种情况的利弊和产生的原因。文章难度一般,题目也不难。

  Text 3

  文章选自麦肯锡季刊,讲的是媒体最新的变化,因为涉及到一些大众传播学的原理和理论知识,文章难度较难,题目也不容易。

  Text 4

  文章选自2010年9月7日的《新闻周刊》,文章作者Jennie Yabroff,文章的题目是Not On Board With Baby(孩子不能登机登船),副标题是Parenthood—the condition, not the TV show—sucks. Or so everyone keeps saying。文章讨论的是美国社会中的一个热点话题:是否要孩子。作者直言不讳地指出,美国流行文化中对养育孩子的好处比较渲染,而养育孩子的艰苦则提的较少。这篇文章的难度主要体现在考生对作者的态度把握上比较困难。

  四篇文章从题材来看,可以归纳为两类:人文和经济,而且重在人文,具有一定的学术性和时效性。从题目难度来看,和2010年细节题和推理题相比,今年的题型分布相对来说比较平均,例证题和词汇题也有相应的分布,作者态度题考查的方式和去年一样,但是比去年的难度降低。英语阅读很多题目可以通过“回找”或“定位”的方法找到答案,干扰项的迷惑还是很大。给考生的启示就是:夯实基础是关键,技巧已经作为了一种补充。考生在应试的时候可根据排除法先选择,这样的现象从2010年的题目中已经看出,干扰项很容易排除,而正确选项在文章中寻找时有一定的困难。

  因此,在答阅读题的时候,一定按照一定的顺序答题,这同时也是给即将参加2012年考生的一个提醒。现将阅读的答题顺序做一下总结,即考研阅读的解题步骤:

  1. 两首:首段、各段首句(目的是为了找中心)。

  2. 看第一题的题干,找关键词。

  1)核心词:时间、地点、人名、数字;2) 一般名词:题干句子里所有的名词;3)动词:infer, imply, learn等。

  3. 返回原文,按照如下的顺序读文章。

  1)关键词所在的句子;2)考点词所在的句子。

  4. 返回题目,按照如下顺序,将选项带回到原文对应的段落里。

  带回原文的顺序:1)关键词所在的句子;2)考点词所在的句子;3)一、二、末句;4)短句子;5)剩余的句子。

  阅读理解 Part B

  文章自于2010年2月25日的Economist《经济学人》杂志,原文题目为University education in America(美国的大学教育)。

  此部分的参考答案为:G → 41. B→42. D→ E →43.A →44.C →45. F

  阅读理解Part C翻译

  原文选自一本非常著名的书Fifty Self-help Classics,主要选自这本书的第11页和12页,经过命题专家改写,有些变了模样。该书是一本励志类的读物,是一部书评,所以翻译起来并不轻松,甚至还有一些哲理性的语言,颇费思量。

  With its theme that “Mind is the master weaver,” creating our inner character and outer circumstances, the book As a Man Thinking by James Allen is an in-depth exploration of the central idea of self-help writing。
  (46) Allen’s contribution was to take an assumption we all share--that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts-and reveal its erroneous nature. 我们每个人都认为:自己不是机器人,因此能够控制自己的思想;爱伦的贡献在于他研究了这一假说,并揭示其错误的本质。Because most of us believe that mind is separate from matter, we think that thoughts can be hidden and made powerless; this allows us to think one way and act another. However, Allen believed that the unconscious mind generates as much action as the conscious mind, and (47) while we may be able to sustain the illusion of control through the conscious mind alone, in reality we are continually faced with a question: “Why cannot I make myself do this or achieve that? ” 我们或许只通过意识就能维持这种控制的幻觉,但事实上,我们却总是面临一个问题:我们为什么不能让自己去做这件事情,实现那个目标呢?
  Since desire and will are damaged by the presence of thoughts that do not accord with desire, Allen concluded : “ We do not attract what we want, but what we are。” Achievement happens because you as a person embody the external achievement; you don’t “ get” success but become it. There is no gap between mind and matter。
  Part of the fame of Allen’s book is its contention that “Circumstances do not make a person, they reveal him。” (48) This seems a justification for neglect of those in need, and a rationalization of exploitation, of the superiority of those at the top and the inferiority of those at the bottom。这种说法似乎为忽视需要帮助的人找到了借口,使剥削合理化,令上层人优越,底层人卑微。
  This, however, would be a knee-jerk reaction to a subtle argument. Each set of circumstances, however bad, offers a unique opportunity for growth. If circumstances always determined the life and prospects of people, then humanity would never have progressed. In fat, (49)circumstances seem to be designed to bring out the best in us and if we feel that we have been “wronged” then we are unlikely to begin a conscious effort to escape from our situation. 环境似乎旨在激发我们的最大潜能,如果我们总感觉“上天不公”,那么不太可能会自觉地努力脱离现状。Nevertheless, as any biographer knows, a person’s early life and its conditions are often the greatest gift to an individual。
  The sobering aspect of Allen’s book is that we have no one else to blame for our present condition except ourselves. (50) The upside is the possibilities contained in knowing that everything is up to us; where before we were experts in the array of limitations, now we become authorities of what is possible。积极的一面是,既然万事都取决于我们,那么就有无限可能。以前,我们能够熟练应对种种局限;现在,我们把握着未来的可能。

  四、写作部分解析

  写作部分比起2010年超纲的“告示”和“变态”的火锅,难度大为降低,现解析如下:

  Part A: 小作文

  Directions:

  Write a letter to a friend of yours to
  1) recommend one of your favorite movies and
  2) give reasons for your recommendation。
  You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.
  Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use”Li Ming”instead。
  Do not write the address。(10 points)

  题目:

  给你的一位朋友写一封信,1)推荐你最喜欢的一部电影;2)给出推荐的原因。

  真题详解:
 
  令广大考生欣慰的是,2011年小作文并未考察大纲中已提到六年但并未考察过的摘要题型,也未考察2010年刚刚考察过的告示题型,而是考察了广大考生最为熟悉、从2005年到2009年已经连续五年考察的书信。

  回顾刚刚过去的2010年,中国内地电影票房成功突破100亿元,成为旭日初升的朝阳产业。从年中的《唐山大地震》、《盗梦空间》、《山楂树之恋》到年底的三大贺岁片《赵氏孤儿》、《让子弹飞》、《非诚勿扰2》,电影已经重新成为全民关注的话题。今年的考研小作文即考察了“电影”这一热点话题。

  本题属于推荐信,需要注意的是,写给朋友的称呼应该直呼其名,不应写某某先生或女士。本题属于半正式文体中的私人书信,文中最好使用3-5次缩写、省略句或口语表达。两点提纲可以各写一段,第三段进行结尾。首段无需进行自我介绍,开门见山表明写作目的即可;第二段应该分析两到三点原因。

  参考范文:

  Dear Bob,

  As one of your closest friend, I'm writing the letter in purpose of recommending one of my favorite movies to you, Around the World in Eighty Days。
  The primary factors for my recommendation as as follows. For one thing, this is a movie of science fiction which tells us an exciting story about an English gentleman,Mr. Phileas Fogg, who makes a bet with his clubmates and managers to travel around the world in eighty days. For another, it gives us a vivid description of the many difficulties and incidents which happen on his journey。
  Wish you enjoy the movie. Looking forward to your reply. (104 words)
  Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming

  参考译文:

  鲍勃:

  作为你最好的一位朋友,我写这封信是为了向你推荐我最喜欢的电影之一:《八十天环游地球》。
  我推荐的主要原因如下。首先,这是一部科幻电影,讲述了一位英国绅士的一个激动人心的故事。菲力·弗格先生跟他的俱乐部伙伴打了个赌,并设法在八十天之内环游了地球。其次,电影生动描述了他在旅途中遇到的困难和发生的故事。
  希望你喜欢这部电影。期待着你的回信。

  你真诚的,

  李明

  Part B: 大作文

  Direction:

  Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing.In your essay ,you should
  1) describe the drawing briefly,
  2) explain its intended measing, and
  3) give your comments。
  You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(20 points)

  (图略)

  文字说明:旅程之“余”

  真题详解:

  不出意外,2011年大作文自2000年以来连续第十二年考察了图画作文题型,三点提纲也与2008年以来的提纲完全一致,考察了考研写作六大话题之一:“环境保护”。

  “环境保护”这一话题考研写作已是第五次考察:第一次是1991年考察了提纲作文“城乡环境差别”,第二次是1999年考察了图表作文“保护野生物种”,第三次是2000年考察了图画作文“保护海洋资源”,第四次是2009年考察了书信“限制使用塑料袋”,今年是第五次考察了图画作文“旅游与环境”。今年的考试再次提醒广大考生:考研写作历年真题是考研写作复习的重中之重!

  参加过新东方培训的考生应该觉得今年的考题易如反掌。我们的内部教材《考研英语写作分册》第29-32页提供了1999和2000年考生的三篇高分作文,很多表达均可使用。

  值得注意的是,近三年的考研写作真题与专业四级写作真题存在某种微妙的联系。2007年专四写作考察了“网络”这一话题,两年之后2009年考研大作文考察“网络”;2008年专四写作考察了“志愿者活动”这一话题,两年之后2010年考研小作文考察了“志愿者活动”;2009年专四写作考察了“旅游与环境”这一话题,两年之后考研大作文再次如约考察“旅游与环境”。之所以出现这种现象其实可以理解。考研写作命题组成员多为全国各重点大学英语系教授级人物,对于英语专业学生必考的专四考试当然了如指掌。

  本题文字说明是:旅程之“余”。“余”字的双引号一语双关,一方面指旅游之后,垃圾遍地,环境遭到严重污染和破坏;一方面指作为个体的”我“在旅游之中应该提高意识,洁身自好,注意爱护环境。

  根据三点提纲,最好写成三段。首段图画描述,越充分越好,切忌使用太多模板或万能句型,引起阅卷教师反感。首段是最重要的段落,也是判卷教师最重视的段落,亦是考研大作文难点所在。每点提纲各占三分之一分数,即七分。首段不描述图画直接扣七分,归入低分档,切忌发表太多空洞的议论。描述越多越好,议论越少越好。首句可进行总体描述:人物+动作+环境;次句可进行细节描述,力求详细;尾句可翻译文字说明或点出象征寓意。

  次段意义阐释,五句左右即可。一般首句是主题句,点出象征寓意;中间进行具体论证,可从因果、举例、正反等多方面进行论证;尾句进行小结。末段可写成归纳结论或建议措施,呼吁人们提高公德意识,在大力发展旅游的同时,加强环境保护。

  本文只要写成与环境或环保相关即可,即使没有提到旅游或者公德意识,也不用过多担心。只要语言基本正确、结构比较清晰、内容没有跑题,即可取得及格分(12分左右);如果语言精彩、结构严谨、论证充分,即可高分在握(16分或以上)。祝大家梦想成真!

  参考范文:

  As is subtly portrayed in the cartoon, two toursits are taking sightseeing on a small boat while discarding their picnicing leftovers casually into a lake. Unfortuantely, the lake is already littered and teamed with flowing rubbish like plastic containers, fish-bones, banana skin, watermelon rind, bottles, tins, food wrappings, and so on. And below the drawing, there is a topic which says: "after" the travel or "me" in the travel。
  From the portrayal, we can conclude that the painter wants to convey such a message: a good many popular places are flooded with visitors, who spoil the beauty of nature by creating and leaving behind God-knows-how-much trash. On the one hand, tourism, as a multibillion-dollar business, is booming everywhere. Some people, laboring under the belief that tourism serves as an engine of economic growth, seem to ignore its negative effects on the environment. Nevertheless, it is my view that these are not concerns that we can shrug off lightly. On the other hand, tourism has exerted great pressure on the environment we are living in: water is polluted, the ecological system is disturbed, and natural resources have been excessively used。
  Undoubtedly, tourism could not be banned in any country as it does help to shore up the economy in places which offer few sources of income. The significant point is that the unchecked growth of the travel business may render the development of an economy unsustainable. It is high time that we enhanced people's awareness to rectify this by taking the environmental protection into consideration. (255 words)

  参考译文:

  如图所示,两名游客正在一艘小船上观光,同时把野餐的剩余垃圾随意丢入湖中。不幸的是,湖中已经堆满了漂浮的塑料盒、鱼骨、香蕉皮、西瓜皮、瓶子、罐头、食品包装等各色垃圾。在图画下方,有个小标题写明:“旅程之‘余’”。

  从漫画中,我们可以得出结论:画家想要表达下述信息:成群的游客涌入很多景点,通过生产并丢弃大量的垃圾从而破坏了大自然的美观。一方面,旅游业作为一项数十亿美元的产业,正在世界各地迅猛发展。有些人认为旅游业是经济发展的引擎,似乎忽视了其对环境的负面影响。然而,我认为我们必须充分关注这一问题。另一方面,旅游业已经对我们生存的环境造成了巨大的压力。水受到污染,生态平衡遭到破坏,自然资源被过度开发。

  毫无疑问,由于在其他收入很少的地区,旅游业确实有助于发展经济,因此任何国家都无法禁止旅游业。重要的是旅游业毫无节制的发展可能使得经济发展不可持续。通过考虑环境保护因素,我们早就该提高人们的意识来扭转这个现象了。

        结束语

  纵观2011年英语考研真题,我们可以得出如下启示:首先,考生不要寄希望于押题,因为英语考试是水平考试,考生千万要夯实基本功,过好词汇关和语法关,并注重积累好的句型和短语、搭配;除了注重基本功,大家还要适当拓展知识面,关心社会热点,另外,从今年多篇阅读理解的出处来看,大家要重视外文期刊和报纸的阅读,通过阅读原文熟悉西方人的思维方式、习作习惯,并增强语感,如能坚持这种训练,必定会对应试产生直接的帮助。最后祝愿2011年的考生们美梦成真!

  评论这张
 
阅读(980)| 评论(1)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017